Macro nutrients: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur.
Micro nutrients: iron, zinc, manganesum, chlorine, copper, borum, molybdenum.
C, O and H are taken from the atmosphere and water. The others are taken from the soil.
What about hydroponics? Need sunlight to grow?
Water is only used as a medium, an adequate supply of nutrients must be added, otherwise, the plants will die. Hydroponic method also can use UV light as a replacement of sunlight to grow.
Some elements like Sodium and Silicone are considered beneficial in some species. That’s it, plants can live without them, but their presence benefits the growth and development of some species.